Publication Ethics

 Scientific research is the core mainstay for growth and development; it is also considered an important factor in determining a successful building of knowledge in recent times, as it is the prominent feature of our current era. The crucial effect of scientific research is due to the fact that nations realized growth in the intellectual and behavioral capabilities of individuals through scientific research. The benefits of scientific research clarifying information about the human being, the universe, and the social phenomena in overcoming the difficulties and proposing solutions to them recognizing important space occupied and the multiplicity of the parties associated with it. The science of scientific research ethics and regulations emerged to contribute to upgrading and organizing the scientific research by setting rules and laws governing the relations between the parties participating in it that will ensure the research process is conducted accurately in achieving the desired goals and prevent any manipulation or exploitation for personal interests and desires. With regard to the relationship between research leaders and members of the research team, whether graduate students or others, should be based on trust and cooperation, in a way that benefits both parties and guarantees their rights. Finally, the research rules would support social values that ​​related to human rights and adhere to public safety rules. It is possible to present the most important principles of research and scientific publishing as follows:

  • Commitment to social responsibility and striving to develop humanities in solving problems through research and scientific studies.
  • None bias or manipulation of the research process design, data analysis, and presentation.
  • Objectivity, honesty, and accuracy in documenting, analyzing, and publishing data and results, without lying, misleading, or deceiving.
  • Carefully writing and striving to reduce human and methodological errors to a minimum.
  • Openness, sharing data and results with researchers by accepting constructive criticism.
  • The necessity of respecting intellectual property such as patents and copyrights, attributing opinions to their owners and avoiding their plagiarism or theft, and not using any unpublished data or results without referring to their owner.
  • Respecting privacy and maintaining the confidentiality of information.
  • Publishing with the aim of developing and benefiting mankind, not just to obtain personal interests.
  • Respecting researchers and colleagues at work, and giving appreciation and thanks to those who deserve it.
  • Helping researchers, enhancing their capabilities, and enabling them to make their own decisions.
  • Avoiding racial discrimination based on gender, race, or religion among colleagues or students.
  • Adherence to the laws and regulations established by institutions and bodies organizing scientific research.
  • Use the available resources wisely to accomplish the desired goals.
  • Avoid succumbing to governmental influences aimed at leaving research in vital public affairs.
  • Respecting the human self and not violating human rights and dignity when conducting experiments on it, and conducting scientific research on human beings to ensure the greatest benefit and the least possible harm. Non-human subjects and animals must also be treated with appropriate respect and care when used in experiments.
  • Avoid any conflict of interest, such as supporting private parties with an agenda or linking with parties with special interests.

 In adding to the aforementioned, there are also foundations and regulations governing writing the names of authors on scientific publications in order to guarantee the rights of the participants and the supporting bodies, as the list of authors must include all the people who contributed to structuring the research idea or in designing the research process and analyzing data or participating in the critical review of the working draft. The order of the names shall be determined by the collective agreement between them, while they all share responsibility for the correctness and accuracy of the published results. As for the persons who participated in a meaningful way in the research but did not fulfill the conditions for being listed as authors, they should be thanked at the end of the work submitted for publication. With regard to publishers and scientific periodicals, what is known as open access sites have recently appeared, which are websites that issue electronic periodicals that are available directly and continuously to researchers and beneficiaries. These sites came to facilitate and speed up the publishing process and ensure that the latest scientific findings reach the largest possible number of beneficiaries for free without the need to subscribe to the paper periodicals that may require financial subscriptions to review them, so they are limited only to a special category of researchers. Despite the advantages offered by free access sites, they have become a means of material exploitation, as most of them require that the author pay a monetary sum in exchange for publishing his research, and with the development of technology, it has become easy to publish fake, misleading or low-quality research on these sites without there being a review and scrutiny before Publishing, and therefore in the direction towards creativity and the knowledge economy, it is necessary to pay attention to and consolidate research and scientific publishing as a means of advancing and documenting science, through adopting a system of ethics and norms established for a future stage in the scientific research process entitled science, research, leadership, and creativity.