Analysis of Gender Firstness in Sixteen Omani English Language School Textbooks

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Adnan Bataineh
Kazeem Kayode Bakare


The purpose of this study is to examine gender firstness in sixteen Omani school textbooks used in all Omani government schools. The study sample consists of Grades 1, 4, 7 and 11 textbooks. The following categories were analyzed using content analysis: masculine and feminine third person pronouns, titles, and names found in these Omani school textbooks. In general, the study results have revealed that gender bias against females is present. Females’ presence is marginal whereas males’ presence is powerful. The study findings showed that the total number of third person pronouns was 63 (males appeared before females 38 times, whereas females appeared before males 25 times). Moreover, these textbooks contained 71 proper names (males appeared before females 45 times compared to only 26 females appearing before males). In addition, Omani school textbooks contained 18 titles (12 titles were used with males compared to only 6 titles used with females). Finally, statistical analysis of the textbooks showed that there are no statistically significant differences (chi-square, likelihood ratio, and Cramer’s V) between males and females in terms of pronouns and adjectives.

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Educational Studies